Surgery is a common and recommended treatment for contractures, that is, when the elastic material of tendons and muscles is replaced by an inelastic material, which inhibits proper movement. Surgeons can lengthen muscles that are too short, provided they can locate the exact muscle at fault. Recovery usually takes months, so doctors attempt to correct all muscles at one time, or with closely scheduled surgeries.
Surgery can also be used to reduce spasticy by selectively cutting overactive nerve fibers. There is some debate about the effectiveness of this, but studies seem to indicate that it is successful, particularly in cases of spastic diplegia, but research is ongoing.
There are also a number of experimental techniques in use to counteract various negative effects of cerebral palsy. Two of these are chronic cerebellar stimulation and stereotaxic thalamotomy. New techniques and surgical procedures are constantly under development.