Brain injury (also called Traumatic Brain Injury, or TBI) is the result of a blow, jolt, or penetrating injury to the head, which can cause damage to the brain and/or surrounding tissue. The severity of a brain injury can vary greatly, and so can its effects.
- A mild brain injury may result in headaches or fatigue. Other common symptoms of minor brain injury include sensitivity to light and sound, trouble sleeping, and difficulty maintaining balance.
- A severe brain injury may induce a coma, a vegetative state, or brain death. Other common symptoms of severe brain injury include inability to stay awake, incoherence or confusion, and seizures.
The location of the brain damage (cerebellum, cerebral hemispheres, or brain stem) is a significant factor in determining the severity of the brain injury's effects. Transportation accidents, such as car crashes, are a major cause of TBI, and many could be prevented by common sense safety measures (seat-belts, helmets, etc). Traumatic brain injury is a widespread problem responsible for a considerable spectrum of disabilities, and patients may require surgery or physical therapy to recover.