As an employer, you are not legally required to provide vacation and sick leave to your employees. If you choose to offer vacation and sick days, apply the policy consistently to all employees and, if possible, require employees to schedule leave in advance.
The Family and Medical Leave Act allows employees leave for birth, adoption or foster care, a serious health condition or a family member’s serious health condition. Eligible employees are entitled to 12 weeks of unpaid leave in any 12 month period. The Family and Medical Leave Act applies to your business and employees if you have 50 or more employees working within a 75-mile radius; the employee requesting leave has worked for you for at least 12 months; and he or she has worked at least 1250 hours during the 12 months preceding the leave.
Federal law, specifically the Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act of 1994, requires employers to reinstate most employees who take time off to service in the armed forces.
Lastly, almost every state prohibits employers for firing or disciplining an employee who takes time off work to vote or to serve jury duty.